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Excerpt from Hugonis Grotii De Jure Belli Et Pacis, Vol. 3: Libri Tres; Accompanied by an Abridges Translation
Chapter I. General Rules as to what is lawful in war by Natural Law and herein of deceit and falsehood [in War.] I. We have seen who may carry on war, and from what causes they may do it lawfully. It follows that we consider what is lawful in war, and to what extent; and this is to be considered either na kedly, or as depending on antecedent promise: and nakedly, first by Natural Law, and next by the Law of Nations. Let us then see what is allowed by Natural Law.
II. 1 First, as we have already repeatedly said, the means which lead to an end in a moral matter receive their intrinsic value from the end: wherefore the steps that are necessary [to a lawful end], necessity being taken not in physical exactness but morally, we have a right to use. By Right, I mean Right taken strictly, such as implies a competence to act in respect of society alone. Wherefore, if I cannot otherwise preserve my life, I may, by any force which I can use, repel him who assails it, even if he be without fault; as we have elsewhere noted: because this right does not properly arise from the fault of another, but from the right which nature gives me for my own preservation.
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