Agriculture and rural development are few of the sectors where a system approach to technological innovation has been list applied for several reasons. Institutional barriers and perceived distance between research and practices in many Afro-Asian countries including India, farmer knowledge and practices has only insufficiently been taken into consideration as a possible source of innovation. Many technological initiatives have not been successful in changing the well-being of smallholder farmers. Low uptake of agricultural technology points to challenges in the interaction of socio-cultural and technical dimensions. Three important questions are posed in this book. What has to be done for rural development? What is the context within which public action takes place? And what are the implications for better practice?