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George Washington ( February 22, 1732 [O.S. February 11, 1731 - December 14, 1799) was an American politician and soldier who served as the first President of the United States from 1789 to 1797. During the American Revolutionary War, Washington served as Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army; as one of the Founding Fathers of the United States, he presided over the convention that drafted the United States Constitution and came to be known as the "father of his country" during his lifetime and to this day. Washington was widely admired for his strong leadership qualities and was unanimously elected president by the Electoral College in the first two national elections. He oversaw the creation of a strong, well-financed national government that maintained neutrality in the French Revolutionary Wars, suppressed the Whiskey Rebellion, and won acceptance among Americans of all types.Washington's incumbency established many precedents still in use today, such as the cabinet system, the inaugural address, and the title Mr. President.His retirement from office after two terms established a tradition that lasted until 1940 when Franklin Delano Roosevelt won an unprecedented third term. The 22nd Amendment (1951) now limits the president to two elected terms. He was born into the provincial gentry of Colonial Virginia to a family of wealthy planters who owned tobacco plantations and slaves, which he inherited. In his youth, he became a senior officer in the colonial militia during the first stages of the French and Indian War. In 1775, the Second Continental Congress commissioned Washington as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army in the American Revolution. In that command, Washington forced the British out of Boston in 1776 but was defeated and nearly captured later that year when he lost New York City. After crossing the Delaware River in the middle of winter, he defeated the British in two battles (Trenton and Princeton), retook New Jersey, and restored momentum to the Patriot cause. His strategy enabled Continental forces to capture two major British armies at Saratoga in 1777 and Yorktown in 1781. Historians laud Washington for the selection and supervision of his generals; preservation and command of the army; coordination with the Congress, state governors, and their militia; and attention to supplies, logistics, and training. In battle, however, Washington was repeatedly outmaneuvered by British generals with larger armies. After victory had been finalized in 1783, Washington resigned as commander-in-chief rather than seize power, proving his opposition to dictatorship and his commitment to American republicanism.................. Henry Jones Ford (1851-1925) was a political scientist, journalist, university professor, and government official.Ford worked as a managing editor and editorial writer from 1872 to 1905, at six different newspapers in three cities (Baltimore, New York and Pittsburgh). Later returning to Baltimore (his hometown), Ford taught at Johns Hopkins University, and afterwards taught at the University of Pennsylvania. He later took a job as professor of politics at Princeton University, at the request of the university's then-president, Woodrow Wilson. Ford's association with Wilson would take him also into politics. When Wilson became governor of New Jersey, he appointed Ford Commissioner of Banking and Insurance; after Wilson became president, Ford was sent to the Philippines on a special mission, reporting directly to the president, and toward the end of Wilson's presidency Ford was named to a position on the Interstate Commerce Commission. Their association would also result in Ford's book Woodrow Wilson, the Man and His Work, which was an account of Wilson's experience on the presidential campaign trail. Ford served as president of the American Political Science Association from 1918 to 1919.
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